Chemotaxis of Cancer Cells in the Process of Metastasis

Cell motility plays an important role in many biological processes, like cancer metastasis. Of particular importance in these processes is chemotaxis: directed motility towards increasing concentrations of soluble factors. Cancer metastasis is a complex process that involves a number of events, with multiple signals from tumor and stromal cells, the extracellular matrix, and soluble growth…

Phoretic mechanisms for particle motion

Colloids have been a very useful model for description of particle interactions.  With their different shapes and sizes scientists have been able to study phase behavior of particles of those shapes.  Some have been studied by their magnetic dipole moment to study spin interactions.  Some have been studied for their autonomous motion simply caused by…

Chemiosmosis and the proton – motive force: an overview

Chemiosmosis is an important, almost central part of the metabolism of living organisms. Inside the cells of these living organisms, ions (usually H+) need to be exchanged across membranes this process is called chemiosmosis. As defined, chemiosmosis is the process of diffusion of ions (usually H+ ions, also known as protons) across a selectively permeable membrane. As…

Tips on how to write a scientific research paper

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Computer Modeling to determine the Density Functional Theory

Quantum chemistry is defined as a branch of theoretical chemistry that uses applications of quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. It lies in the borderline of physics and chemistry. That why scientist of both fields made significant contributions. One of those scientists is Erwin Rudolf Josef Alexander Schrödinger. Schrödinger is famous for a equation (Eq.…

The importance of bacteria and their movement

Scientists face a lot of challenges every day.  According to their interests, they investigate new treatments to cure diseases, bioremediation schemes, answer unsolved mysteries, among others.  Bacteria play an important role in the answer to these challenges.  Not only in the biological field but also in engineering, these unicellular organisms have been fundamental.  In recent…

Site selected (targeted) drug delivery for cancer treatments

Commonly used drug delivery methods such as ingestion and intravenous injection will soon be a part of medical history. These methods mentioned above are somehow ineffective, dispersing medications by means of our systematic blood circulation and only a small portion of the medication reaches the affected area. The recent advances of science and engineering in…

Gold Nanoshells and Cancer Treatment

Cancer represents a major concern not only in the medicine area, but in all the science sectors around the globe. Now, nanotechnology is leading the area of research development thanks to some new discoveries that allow the scientific community to see the light at the end of the tunnel. In previous research, the creation of…

Titanium Dioxide for Photocatalytic Decontamination

Water decontamination using titanium dioxide (TiO2) as photocatalyst is being used in some places around the world. Under ultraviolet light (UV) the TiO2 reacts with organic pollutants due to it strong oxidative potential. It is also demonstrated that with natural sunlight the TiO2 can degrade the 4-chlorophenol pollutant from water[1]. Also other water contaminant can…

Nanotechnology: Janus Particles

Recently, the synthesis of Janus particles has created great interest in the scientific field. These particles received its name in allusion to the double-faced Roman god Janus; for this reason the particles with two chemically or physically different surfaces, receive the name of Janus particles. Synthesized particles with different properties present new opportunities for many…